duality Read more
Wave-particle dualityEvery quantum object is both a particle, like a tennis ball, and some sort of wave, like a wave in the ocean.
spin Read more
The spin, a quantum magnetNot only is the electron both a particle and a quantum wave, but it also carries a kind of mini magnet called spin.
Graphene Read more
grapheneGraphene is an artificial carbon material with extraordinary properties, and it is made of only one layer of atoms.
Photoemission Read more
Photoemission and metalsAngle-resolved photoemission enables us to measure the energy and momentum of electrons inside matter.
Metal Read more
Metals and insulators : the quantum difference !In matter, electrons behave like quantum waves trapped in a box.
Quantization Read more
Quantization : a discontinuous universeIn the quantum world, particles can only assume certain energies. Imagine a car that could only run at certain specific speeds and would directly accelerate from 30 to 50 mph! Why?
Laser Read more
The laser technologyInvented by physicists, the laser technology uses the quantum properties of atoms to emit a light of a special kind.
Pump-probe Read more
Pump-probe techniqueThe pump-probe technique enables us to measure ultrafast phenomena inside matter such as the movement of atoms or electron excitations, thanks to very short laser pulses.
tunnel effect Read more
the tunnel effectSometimes quantum particles can go through walls, as if an invisible tunnel opened up before them!
Crystallography Read more
Crystallography and reciprocal latticeCrystallography techniques enable us to measure the arrangement of atoms inside matter.
Bose-Einstein condensate Read more
Bose-Einstein condensateSome gases, when cooled to ultra-low temperatures, collectively achieve a new quantum state, the Bose-Einstein condensate.
STATE SUPERPOSITION Read more
STATE SUPERPOSITION AND DECOHERENCESome quantum systems, such as atoms, photons, or spins, can be in two simultaneous different states. We call these “Schrödinger’s cats”.
DARK FIELD AND PHASE CONTRAST Read more
Dark field and phase contrast microscopesDark field and phase contrast microscopes allow to observe transparent samples.
SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE STM Read more
SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE (STM)The Scanning Tunneling Microscope allows to measure the topography of metals, the position of their atoms, and the electron characteristics in the metal.
FLUORESCENT AND CONFOCAL Read more
Fluorescent and confocal microscopiesThe fluorescence microscope allows to detect the presence and localization of fluorescent molecules in the sample. The confocal microscope is a specific fluorescent microscope that allows obtaining 3D images of the sample with good resolution.
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE AFM Read more
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE AFMThe atomic force microscope allows to measure the topography of various materials down to atomic resolution.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE TEM Read more
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)The Transmission Electron Microscope allows to get magnified images of very thin samples and to analyze their composition.
POLARIZING MICROSCOPE Read more